sss ssss rrrrrrrrrrr ssss ss rrrr rrrr sssss s rrrr rrrr ssssss rrrr rrrr ssssssss rrrr rrrr ssssss rrrrrrrrr s ssssss rrrr rrrr ss sssss rrrr rrrr sss sssss rrrr rrrr s sssssss rrrrr rrrrr +===================================================+ +======= Quality Techniques Newsletter =======+ +======= October 2004 =======+ +===================================================+ QUALITY TECHNIQUES NEWSLETTER (QTN) is E-mailed monthly to subscribers worldwide to support the Software Research, Inc. (SR), eValid, and TestWorks user communities and to other interested parties to provide information of general use to the worldwide internet and software quality and testing community. Permission to copy and/or re-distribute is granted, and secondary circulation is encouraged, provided that the entire QTN document/file is kept intact and this complete copyright notice appears in all copies. Information on how to subscribe or unsubscribe is at the end of this issue. (c) Copyright 2004 by Software Research, Inc. ======================================================================== Contents of This Issue o Method for Estimating the Number of Concurrent Users, by Eric Man Wong o NSS2 Update From Alan Salisbury o eValid: Latest News and Updates o Special Issue of IEEE Software, Incorporating COTS into the Development Process o ISO 9001:2000 for Software and Systems Provicers: An Engineering Approach, by Robert C. Bamford adn William J. Deibler II o eValid: A Quick Summary o Software Process: Improvement and Practice: Free/Open Source Software Processes o www.ada-answers.com Launches New Website o 2005 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2005) o QTN Article Submittal, Subscription Information ======================================================================== Method for Estimating the Number of Concurrent Users by Eric Man Wong 1. Introduction For the sake of capacity planning and performance management, it is often necessary to estimate the number of concurrent users of a system before it is actually put into production. It is because the consumption of many system resources is directly related to the number of concurrent users. Using web application as an example: the memory usage, the CPU utilization, the number of server processes/threads, the number of database connections and the network bandwidth utilization are all increasing functions of the number of users concurrently logging in at the system. Notwithstanding the importance, people often estimate the number of concurrent users by intuition or wild guessing with little justification. In this paper, we try to introduce a simple method to derive the number of concurrent users from some other parameters that can be more easily estimated and justified. 2. An Unsatisfactory Method A way people sometimes use to estimate the number of concurrent users is to assume that it is equal to a certain percentage of the total user population. It is not a good method because even though the user population can sometimes be reliably estimated, the percentage figure being used is often, if not always, a magic number that has little justification. It should be pointed out that the percentage figure just mentioned cannot be taken as the percentage of users who access a system in a certain period of time. In some situations it is possible for the latter figure to be reliably estimated. For example, if we know that every user uses a particular system once and only once in a month and there is no preference on which day the system will be used, we can safely predict that the percentage of users who will use the system in any one day is about 3.3% (that is, 1 / 30). However, this figure alone cannot be used to deduce the number of concurrent users. It is because the users who use the system on the same day do not necessarily use it at the same time. Some users may use it in the morning, and some may use it in the afternoon. We are going to see in the next section a better way to do this. 3. Formula for Estimating the Average Number of Concurrent users We begin by defining what the number of concurrent users means. But before we do, the term login session has to be clarified first. A login session is a time interval defined by a start time and end time. Between the start time and end time, there are one or more system resources being held. Take any web application that requires user authentication as an example, a login session starts from the time the user logs on to the system and ends when the users logs out. A user session (which consumes system memory) is created for each login session. The length of a login session is the difference between the start time and the end time. We are now ready to define the concept of concurrent users. We shall agree that the number of concurrent users at a particular time instant is defined as the number of login sessions into which the time instant falls. This is illustrated in the following example: ^ | +--------Login Session 4---+------------- | | | -------------------+-Login Session 3---- | | | ---------Login Session 2------------- | | | ---+--Login Session 1-------- | | +--------------------------+----------------------------> Time t0 The horizontal axis is the time line. Each horizontal line segment represents a login session. Since the vertical line at time t0 intercepts with three login sessions, the number of concurrent users at time t0 is equal to three. Let us focus on the time interval from 0 to an arbitrary time instant T. The following result can be mathematically proven: (*) Average number of concurrent users(c) = Sum of the length of all login session -------------------------------------- T Alternatively, if the total number of login sessions from time 0 to T equals n, and the average length of a login session equals L, then (**) C = (n L) / T The formal proof is presented in the the fulll version of this paper. Intuitively, the formula can be shown this way: imagine that all the line segments representing the login sessions are joined end to end to form a long string. If the string is longer than T, then we have to wrap it round and round for a number of times in order to fill it in the space with length T. 4. Estimating the parameters To calculate the average number of concurrent users (C) using the formula in section 3, a prerequisite is determining the values of the two parameters: o the total number of login sessions (n) o the average length of a login session (L) in the time period of concern with length (T). In this section, we give some advice about how these parameters could be estimated. Firstly it should be pointed out that the result of the formula, C, is only an average value. It is possible that the number of concurrent users fluctuate widely in the concerned period of time. Hence, if we want the value of C to be as representative as possible, we should restrict the time period of concern so that the arrival rate of new login sessions (i.e. the ratio of n/T) is more or less steady in that time period. For example, if we know that a system is only used during office hours, we should limit the period of concern to the office hours only, instead of the whole day. The value of T is therefore equal to 8 (assuming 8-hour work) instead of 24. Otherwise, the value of C will be greatly dragged down by the fact that the system is not used during the non-officer hours. The total number of login sessions (n) and the average length of a login session (L) can often be determined by the size of the user population and usage patterns. For example, if there are N potential users and we know that the probabilities that a user will use a system one time, two times and three times a day are p1, p2 and p3 respectively, and assume that a user will very unlikely use the system more than three times a day, then the total number of login sessions in one day is N (p1 + 2 p2 + 3 p3). On the other hand, the average length of a login session can be estimated by observing how a sample of users use the system. In many systems, the frequency of usage and the average length of login sessions varies widely for different users. In this case, if we can group the users of similar usage patterns into a small number of classes, the above analysis can still be made. We can then calculate the number concurrent of users for each class and add the results together. Undeniably, the usage patterns of users are often difficult to accurately predict. But for most systems, especially internal applications, some justifiable rough figures can usually be obtained. A example is presented in the next section to illustrate this. 5. An Example The government of City H is going to launch the electronic payroll system for its 170,000 employees to view their own payroll information. Due to the varied levels of IT competency, the limited availability of PCs and the existence of other means for checking salary information, it is estimated that when the system is fully launched across the government, only 50% of the employees will regularly use the system. Of these users, it is also estimated that 70% will use the system once during the last week of each month. It was observed from the users who participated in the UAT that the average length of usage is about 5 minutes. We can now estimate the average concurrent number of users during the last week of a month. Let us restrict the period of concern to the office hours (9am - 5pm) of any one day. n = 170,000 * 0.5 * 0.7 / 5 (assuming 5 days in a week) = 11,900 L = 5 min T = 8 hrs = 480 min ( 8 office hours each day) C = (n L)/T = (11,900 * 5) / 480 = ~124 So, it can be predicted that there will be an average of ~124 concurrent users accessing the system during the last week of each month. For Further Information This article is a shortened version of a longer paper which which you can download from: http://www.geocities.com/wongman_eric/Concurrent_Users_Estimation.pdf ======================================================================== NSS2 Update From Alan Salisbury Editors Note: Below is an email letter received from Dr. Alan Salisbury, President of the Center for National Software Studies (http://www.cnsoftware.org). You can reach Alan at email@example.com. Dear Ed: I think I can state without any doubt that NSS2 was very successful. We had a critical mass of significant players from government, industry and academia, and we had a good 2 days of solid deliberation. We are working on the NSS2 final report which we want to release some time after the election, so we can target the right people to receive copies. Title (subject to final revision) is "Software 2015: A National Software Strategy to Ensure U.S. Security and Competitiveness. Report of the 2d National Software Summit." Here's an excerpt from the NSS2 Report: "The vision for this strategy includes two mutually supporting and complementary goals: Achieving the ability to routinely develop and deploy trustworthy software products and systems, while ensuring the continued competitiveness of the U.S. software industry. The proposed strategy includes the four major program themes listing below, each consisting of one or more initiatives which are further detailed in the sections that follow: o Improving Software Quality and Security o Educating and Fielding the Software Workforce o Re-Energizing Software Research & Development o Encouraging Innovation within the U. S. Software Industry" That's about as much of a "preview" as I think I can provide at this point. The meat, of course, is the initiatives themselves which we are still massaging while we complete the overall report. If you want to mention any of this in your newsletter I think that will be OK. Regards, Alan ======================================================================== eValid: Latest News & Updates eValid is the premier WebSite Quality Testing & Analysis Suite. eValid solutions help organizations maintain e-Business presence, improve WebSite quality and performance, reduce down time, prevent customer loss, and control your costs. eValid's Web Analysis and Testing Suite is comprehensive, yet scalable and easy to use, and applies to a wide range of web applications. Built entirely inside an IE-compatible browser, realistic viewer experience results are 100% guaranteed. New 3D-SiteMap Update Introduces New Capabilities ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The 3D-SiteMap portrays page-to-page dependency information that the eValid site analysis process obtains by systematically scanning a WebSite and then analyzing the dependencies between all of the pages it viewed. A new release of the eValid 3D-SiteMap display engine is now available. The new additions to the 3D-SiteMap engine include: o A capability to limit the displayed dependencies to an adjustable depth for children and/or parents of a chosen root node. o An option to show only the "immediate family" of a chosen root (base) URL. You can see a complete working example along with the updated 3D- SiteMap Summary Documentation at: http://www.soft.com/eValid/Products/Documentation.40/Mapping/3Dsitemap.html New Course at McGill by Robert Sabourin ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Prof. Robert Sabourin is offering a course in Software Validation [ECSE 429] http://www.ece.mcgill.ca/~info429/infosheet.html in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department http://www.mcgill.ca/ece/ at McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A major part of the course is the us of eValid for functional and stress testing of websites. Sample E-Commerce, Download Monitors Available ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ As part of our continuing effort to provide clear explanations and worked examples of eValid operation, we have put together two additional hourly monitors. The Ritz Interactive E-Commerce Monitor http://www.soft.com/eValid/Customers/USA/R/Ritzinteractive/Monitor1/summary.html applies a deep transaction to a popular website to determine hour- by-hour relative performance as viewed "over the last mile" from a users' perspective. This is a very reliable website, but even so you can observe daily fluctuations in the total download time.
The SilverDollar Executable Download Monitor http://www.soft.com/eValid/Customers/Canada/I/IPmarketing/Monitor1/summary.html examines the total download speed for a relatively large (> 5 MByte) executable. It does this by actually downloading the file and synchronizing for "Download Complete" in the Windows SaveAs modal dialog. Like Ritz Interactive, this is a very stable site, which exhibits fairly uniform download speeds through each day. Enhanced Adaptive Playback for ButtonClick Command ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Changes in the adaptive playback support have been made for eValid's ButtonClick command. The new implementation provides for increased flexibility in how eValid adapts to a changed button name or changed button location. With this change fewer tests will fail for inconsequential changes in the underlying website. The improved method is available to regular eValid users as part of their regular maintenance subscription. eValid Adopted For Lab Use At SJSU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Prof. Gerry Gao at San Jose State University's College of Engineering http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/coe/index.php has adopted eValid for use in his course on Software Quality Testing [CMPE 287/196H] http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/gaojerry/course/287/Lab- schedule.htm being offered in the Fall 2004 semester. The eValid engine is used for both the GUI regression testing (record/play) work and also for the load/stress testing parts of the laboratory work. New Dashboard Status Displays ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ As web pages grow in complexity it becomes more and more important to have precise control of the eValid recording mode. Knowing the kind of object you are recording is crucial to achieving a reliable, repeatable, adaptable and robust test recording. To help achieve the best possible recordings the eValid Recording Mode Dashboard has been modified to show the current settings of important recording options. See: http://www.soft.com/eValid/Products/Documentation.40/GUI/dashboard.html#Record Now you can see, in one location, the current states of absolute and Element MouseOver recording, and of Left and Right Click recording in absolute mode. In addition, the dashboard shows you when you are recording in Application Mode. Command Line Switches and Error Codes Expanded ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ To support expanded use of eValid in monitoring applications and other unattended operational roles, we have added a number of new exit codes. The complete Playback Error Codes documentation gives all of the details. See: http://www.soft.com/eValid/Products/Documentation.40/Technical/error.codes.html Of special note is the addition of error/exit codes for the new eV.Manager batch-mode to automatically repeat application of an test suite a fixed number of times in immediate succession. See the eV.Manager Command Line Switches description at: http://www.soft.com/eValid/Products/Documentation.40/Technical/interface.html#eV.Manager Product Download Location, Details ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Here is the URL for downloading eValid if you want to start [or re- start] your evaluation: http://www.soft.com/eValid/Products/Download.40/down.evalid.40.phtml?status=FORM Contact Us With Your Questions ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ We welcome your questions about eValid and its applications. We promise a response to every question in one business day if you use the WebSite request form: http://www.soft.com/eValid/Information/info.request.html ======================================================================== Special Issue of IEEE Software dedicated to Incorporating COTS into the Development Process Publication: July/August 2005 Issue http://cs-ieee.manuscriptcentral.com/index.html. Dealing with commercial off-the-shelf products is a high-risk activity, in part due to lack of access to its source code and its developers. In the past, COTS integration has addressed this problem predominantly as an add-on to software development. However, it affects the entire software development life cycle from requirements engineering, design, implementation, and testing to long-term maintenance; it transcends social, economic, and development concerns; and it affects all the "traditional" aspects of software development. This special issue will explore innovative ways of integrating commercial off-the-shelf software products into software systems for purposes often unimagined by their creators. It will investigate the challenges and risks faced as well as the benefits gained in building COTS-based software systems. The issue will report on Software engineering principles (methods, techniques, tools) for integrating COTS products into software systems effectively, safely, reliably, and predictably, lessons learned, and case studies that demonstrate such software engineering principles. Potential topics include: o How to achieve COTS product control and data integration o How to synchronize COTS products with other systems o How to mediate between incompatible interfaces o How to make COTS products aware of their surroundings o How to architect, design, and simulate COTS product integration > Integrating their user interfaces > Dealing with version control o How to reverse-engineer systems containing COTS products o How to design product lines with COTS products o How to test software systems containing COTS products Manuscripts must not exceed 5,400 words including figures and tables, which count for 200 words each. Submissions in excess of these limits may be rejected without refereeing. The articles we deem within the theme's scope will be peer-reviewed and are subject to editing for magazine style, clarity, organization, and space. We reserve the right to edit the title of all submissions. Be sure to include the theme's name on your manuscript. Guest Editors: Alexander Egyed Research Scientist Teknowledge Corp. 4640 Admiralty Way, Suite 1010 Marina Del Rey, CA 90292, USA firstname.lastname@example.org Hausi A. Mller Professor Department of Computer Science University of Victoria PO Box 3055, Engineering Office Wing EOW-337 (for courier) Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada Dewayne E. Perry Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Texas at Austin 1 University Station Stop C0803 Austin, TX 78712-1084, USA ======================================================================== ISO 9001:2000 for Software and Systems Providers: An Engineering Approach by Robert C. Bamford William J. Deibler II Abstract Executives, engineering managers, project managers, engineers, and process improvement experts within engineering organizations need a resource that systematically translates the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 into a usable specification for engineers. Understanding ISO 9001:2000 from an engineer's perspective ensures that software, hardware, and systems engineering organizations will continue to develop, maintain and evolve their engineering practices long after the consultants are gone. ISO 9001:2000 for Software and Systems Providers: An Engineering Approach (December 2003, CRC Press) provides proven strategies for using ISO 9001 to implement and revitalize systematic process improvements within software, hardware, and systems engineering organizations. This volume dissects and analyzes each paragraph of ISO 9001 from an engineering perspective, clarifying the relationship to engineering practices and the potential benefits to the organization. This volume also stresses the relationships among the paragraphs, which can have a critical impact on the efficiency of the ISO implementation. Written by engineers for engineers, the authors incorporate more than a decade of experience implementing ISO 9001 in engineering organizations of all types. They present a well-defined roadmap that any engineering organization can follow to secure the maximum benefits from the standard. Their roadmap has proven effective in small and large organizations, from Silicon-Valley-based startups to established defense contractors. Contact: Bill Deibler
======================================================================== eValid: A Quick Summary http://www.e-valid.com eValid technology incorporates virtually every quality and testing functionality in a full-featured browser. Here is a summary of the main eValid benefits and advantages. o InBrowser(tm) Technology. All the test functions are built into the eValid browser. eValid offers total accuracy and natural access to "all things web." If you can browse it, you can test it. And, eValid's unique capabilities are used by a growing number of firms as the basis for their active services monitoring offerings. o Mapping and Site Analysis. The built-in WebSite spider travels through your website and applies a variety of checks and filters to every accessible page. All done entirely from the users' perspective -- from a browser -- just as your users will see your website. o Functional Testing, Regression Testing. Easy to use GUI based record and playback with full spectrum of validation functions. The eV.Manager component provides complete, natural test suite management. o LoadTest Server Loading. Multiple eValid's play back multiple independent user sessions -- unparalleled accuracy and efficiency. Plus: No Virtual Users! Single and multiple machine usages with consolidated reporting. o Performance Tuning Services. Outsourcing your server loading activity can surely save your budget and might even save your neck! Realistic scenarios, applied from multiple driver machines, impose totally realistic -- no virtual users! -- loads on your server. o Web Services Testing/Validation. eValid tests of web services start begin by analyzing the WSDL file and creating a custom HTML testbed page for the candidate service. Special data generation and analysis commands thoroughly test the web service and automatically identify a range of failures. o Desktop, Enterprise Products. eValid test and analysis engines are delivered at moderate costs for desktop use, and at very competitive prices for use throughout your enterprise. o HealthCheck Subscription. For websites up to 1000 pages, eValid HealthCheck services provide basic detailed analyses of smaller websites in a very economical, very efficient way. o eValidation Managed Service. Being introduced soon. the eValidation Managed WebSite Quality Service offers comprehensive user-oriented detailed quality analysis for any size website, including those with 10,000 or more pages. Resellers, Consultants, Contractors, OEMers Take Note We have an active program for product and service resellers. We'd like to hear from you if you are interested in joining the growing eValid "quality website" delivery team. We also provide OEM solutions for internal and/or external monitoring, custom-faced testing browsers, and a range of other possibilities. Let us hear from you! ======================================================================== "Software Process: Improvement and Practice," Special Issue On "Free/Open Source Software Processes," Web sites: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jabout/15482/ProductInformation.html http://www.sei.cmu.edu/community/spip-cfp.html Description: Free/open source software (F/OSS) products and processes (development methods and practices) are being adopted on a global basis throughout the software community. However, it is unclear whether the enthusiastic adoption of F/OSS processes is justified or not. Specifically, it is unclear what processes and practices are specific to, or characteristic of the development, deployment, use, or evolution of F/OSS systems. This special issue of Software Process - Improvement and Practice seeks papers that investigate F/OSS processes from a variety of perspectives and approaches. We are particularly interested in empirical studies of F/OSS processes found in different F/OSS projects, as well as studies that employ tools and techniques for studying, mining, or modeling F/OSS processes through analysis of F/OSS source code, development artifacts, computer-mediated communications (public discussion forums, chat archives, Wikis/Blogs), Web sites, and public repositories. Contact: Brian Fitzgerald (email@example.com) ======================================================================== www.ada-answers.com Launches New WebSite! As the need for robust and reliable software systems increases, Ada continues to prove to be an excellent answer for many of today's most complex programming challenges. 'Ada Answers' is dedicated to keeping developers and project managers informed about Ada and showcasing the particular strengths and benefits of this extremely powerful programming language. 'Ada Answers' is part of AdaCore's ongoing commitment to promote the qualities of the Ada programming language. Features of the new website include: - Real world examples of Ada in use, including a comprehensive list of companies and organizations that are using Ada everyday. - A growing collection of video interviews in which developers and managers speak about why they have chosen Ada. - Technical features of the Ada programming language are explained, showing how they translate into bottom-line business benefits. - A section dedicated to the wide range of up-to-date Ada materials and resources available on the web. AdaCore is always looking for interesting and innovative Ada stories. Please contact us with yours. We plan to produce videos of some of the stories, but all contributors whose story is published will receive a stylish Ada Answers T-shirt! ======================================================================== 2005 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2005) July 12-15, 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA Sponsored by IEEE Computer Society http://conferences.computer.org/icws/2005 Theme: Bridge the Gap between Business Services and IT Services The 2005 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2005) is the THIRD year of ICWS focusing on Web Services. The long-term goal of ICWS is to build up a reputable and respectable conference for the international community. ICWS is a forum for researchers and industry practitioners to exchange information regarding advancements in the state of the art and practice of Web Services, as well as to identify the emerging research topics and define the future of Web Services computing. ICWS 2005 is sponsored by IEEE Computer Society Technical Steering Committee (a.k.a. Technical Community) for Services Computing (TSC-SC) and will be co-located with the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC 2005). The theme of this joint IEEE conference on SERVICES is "Bridge the Gap between Business Services and IT Services". ICWS 2004 was held in San Diego, California, July 6-9, 2004. A total of 230 papers were submitted to ICWS in 2004, 66 were accepted as full research papers. ICWS 2004 had 14 research sessions, 4 industry sessions, 5 tutorials, 4 panels, and 3 poster paper sessions. ICWS 2004 had attracted about 250 registered participants from 22 countries and regions. ICWS 2003 and ICWS 2004 have proven to be an excellent catalyst for research & collaboration, and we fully expect that ICWS 2005 will continue this trend. The program of ICWS 2005 will continue to feature research papers with a wide range of topics, focusing on difference aspects of IT services. Some of the topics include Web Services specifications and enhancements, Web Services discovery, Web Services security, Web Services based applications, Web Services standards and technologies, Web Services applications and solutions, Web Services realizations, semantic Web Services, and other emerging technologies or solutions. All accepted papers will be published in the conference proceedings in hardcopy and on-line version by the IEEE Computer Society. The full version of the selected best papers published in the ICWS 2005 will be invited to publication in the International Journal of Web Services Research (JWSR) (by Idea Group) and possibly other related journals. The ICWS 2005 Proceedings and JWSR have both been selected to be included in EI Compendex. SCOPE: Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following: - Mathematical foundations of Web Services - Data management issues in Web Services - Frameworks for building Web Service applications - Composite Web Service creation and enabling infrastructures - Web Service composition, orchestration, and choreography - Web Services modeling & design - Web Services discovery & selection - Semantic Web, ontologies, and Web Services - Dynamic invocation mechanisms for Web Services - Contractual issues between provider and consumer of Web Services - Version management in Web Services - Customization of Web Services - Web Services architecture - Web Services negotiation & agreement - UDDI and SOAP enhancements - Web Services and process management - Trust, security & privacy in Web Services - Scalability and performance of Web Services - Web Services standards and technologies - Automatic computing for Web Services infrastructure - Wireless web, mobility, and Web Services - Web Service based Grid Computing and peer to peer computing - Web Services based applications for e-commerce - Quality of service for Web Services - Multimedia applications using Web Services - Economics and pricing models of utility computing and Web Services - Resource management of Web Services - Solution management for Web Services - Adoption of Web Services by organizations - Case studies on Web Services based applications - Analysis, testing, and verification of Web Services General Chairs of ICWS 2005 Carl K. Chang Professor and Chair, Department of Computer Science Iowa State University, USA 2004 President, IEEE Computer Society Liang-Jie (LJ) Zhang Ph.D., IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, USA Chair, Services Computing PIC, IBM Research ======================================================================== ======================================================================== ------------>>> QTN ARTICLE SUBMITTAL POLICY <<<------------ ======================================================================== QTN is E-mailed around the middle of each month to over 10,000 subscribers worldwide. To have your event listed in an upcoming issue E-mail a complete description and full details of your Call for Papers or Call for Participation at <http://www.soft.com/News/QTN-Online/subscribe.html> QTN's submittal policy is: o Submission deadlines indicated in "Calls for Papers" should provide at least a 1-month lead time from the QTN issue date. 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